Liberalism, Political Theory, And The Rights Of Minority Cultures Liberalism

Francis Fukuyama is the author of The End of History, The Great Disruption, Our Posthuman Future, State Building,After the Neocons, The Origins of Political Order and Political Order and Political Decay. All have been hugely influential international bestsellers, translated and published in many languages. He is Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford. Meanwhile, the level of warming that is already unavoidable will sharply increase the already significant flows of would-be migrants from the impoverished Global South towards the Global North.

  • However, this is an advanced political theory module, so having previously studied some history of political thought and/or political theory (e.g. 5SSPP202, 5SSPP238) is a considerable advantage.
  • Individual rationality and knowledge are therefore sufficient for social and political formation, while experience and tradition are irrelevant.
  • We liberals do not stand on the defence of some cosmo-libertarian fantasy of disembedded citizens and disembodied “netizens,” but we must defend the right of people to be rooted in more than one way and more than one place.
  • The likely economic consequences of the pandemic—unemployment, insecurity, soaring public debt and perhaps inflation—will probably feed a second wave of populism.

Like Neptune’s trident, a renewed Liberalism will have three prongs. The first is the defence of traditional liberal values and institutions, such as free speech and an independent judiciary, against threats from both populists and outright authoritarians. Module fees for students continuing on their programme in following years may be subject to annual inflationary increases.

Reviews For Liberalism And Its Discontents

Relationship of amplitude of N2 NoGo component to self-reported and validated political orientation. Each participant in the experiment is represented by a single point, the horizontal position states subjectively perceived or validated orientation on a relative scale from full Liberalism (−5) to pure conservatism (+5). The vertical co-ordinate corresponds to the N2 NoGo component amplitude.

The Economist has coined the term “hereditary meritocracy” to describe this self-perpetuating new class. Universities like the two in which I am privileged to work therefore bear a major responsibility to widen access, but they cannot achieve social mobility on their own. We also need high-quality state schooling for all, from the crucial early years up, better vocational education and, amid a digital revolution, lifelong learning.

Liberalism And Its Discontents Hardback

Much of its work uses methods of contextualist intellectual history, analytic history of philosophy, or some combination of the two methods. Members also apply the principles of idealist and New Liberal thought to contemporary issues, including social economics, social justice, environmentalism, punishment, international relations and multi/interculturalism. Another possible factor behind the contradictory results might be in the age profile of the groups. If a random population sample with a normal age distribution is evaluated a “spurious relationship” between ERN and political opinion could be found, simply because of the hidden age factor. In our study, we eliminated this influence by narrowing the age span of the cohort of participants.

Checking The liberalocracy

The authors found a statistically significant relationship between the amplitude of the ERN and self-evaluation on the liberalism/conservatism (L/C) axis. They demonstrated that participants who presented a higher degree of liberalism in their answers had a larger ERN amplitude, and this fact was interpreted as a higher sensitivity to incentives for change to established rules. This new liberalism will remain universalist, but with a sober, nuanced universalism, alert to the diversity of perspectives, priorities and experiences of cultures and countries outside the mainstream of the historic west, and cognisant of the shift in world power away from the west. It will remain individualist, dedicated to achieving the greatest liberty of the individual compatible with the liberty of others, but this will be a realistic, contextual individualism. At its best, liberalism has always understood that human beings never are what Jeremy Waldron has called the “self-made atoms of liberal fantasy,” but rather live embedded in multiple kinds of community that speak to deep psychological needs for belonging and recognition.