Liberalism, Political Theory, And The Rights Of Minority Cultures Liberalism

We must, then, be tough on populism and tough on the causes of populism. The third prong requires us to meet, by liberal means, the daunting global challenges of our era, including climate change, pandemics and the rise of China. So our new Liberalism has to look both backward and forward, inward and outward. First, and most simply, because there was no alternative agenda on offer.

The single most important thing the liberal world did to prevail in the Cold War was to make our own societies prosperous, dynamic and attractive. We must try to do the same again, hold true to the cause of persuading others that liberal societies offer a better way to live, and, importantly, keep faith with those in unfree societies who share our values. But realistically we must also recognise that we are in for a long haul of competitive coexistence with authoritarian regimes. For two centuries, the influence of liberal ideas was—more than we might like to think—tied to the predominance of western power.

Obviously a mainly American focus although other regions are discussed .Well worth buying and the only discussion I would have liked to have seen expanded on is the role of lobbyists and corporations in buying influence in democracy. There is also a little too much equivalence drawn between the role of identity politics on the left and the current attacks on democracy and attempt to produce the suppression of voting rights on the right. The development economist Paul Collier argues that limiting immigration can actually benefit the societies from which immigrants come. There are, he writes, more Sudanese doctors in London than there are in Sudan.

Who Are The National Conservatives?

These authoritative volumes present the key articles which illuminate the history and development of liberalism from the seminal contributions of John Locke down to the most recent work by contemporary political theorists such as John Rawls, Richard Rorty and Robert Nozick. Liberalism has inspired several political movements in Europe and in countries influenced by European culture during the last four centuries. It is closely identified with Western civilization in its entirety tracing its origins as far as the pre-Socratic philosophers. Within the electrophysiological part of the examination, the median of participants’ reaction time was 266.9 ms with an interquartile range from 281.8 to 313.3 ms in response to the Go stimuli. The error reaction time to the NoGo stimuli had the median 249.1 ms and the interquartile ranged from 231.7 to 261.2 ms. The median of accuracy for the NoGo condition was 0.75 and 0.97 for the Go condition. In each condition, the accuracy was evaluated as the number of correct responses divided by all possible correct responses.

  • Extreme inequality at the top is in practice incompatible with equal life chances because, through educational and other forms of privilege, it perpetuates that “hereditary meritocracy.” Last but not least, this extreme concentration of wealth results in an acute inequality of power.
  • The PSA’s Liberals and Liberalism Specialist Group aims to co-ordinate and encourage academic study and development into matters of British Liberal Politics.
  • Thus, key liberal figures such as John Locke (1632–1704), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) and Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) opposed what they viewed as the unholy alliance between the Church, absolutist monarchs and the feudal capitalism of the landed gentry.

The authors found a statistically significant relationship between the amplitude of the ERN and self-evaluation on the liberalism/conservatism (L/C) axis. They demonstrated that participants who presented a higher degree of Liberalism in their answers had a larger ERN amplitude, and this fact was interpreted as a higher sensitivity to incentives for change to established rules. This new liberalism will remain universalist, but with a sober, nuanced universalism, alert to the diversity of perspectives, priorities and experiences of cultures and countries outside the mainstream of the historic west, and cognisant of the shift in world power away from the west. It will remain individualist, dedicated to achieving the greatest liberty of the individual compatible with the liberty of others, but this will be a realistic, contextual individualism. At its best, liberalism has always understood that human beings never are what Jeremy Waldron has called the “self-made atoms of liberal fantasy,” but rather live embedded in multiple kinds of community that speak to deep psychological needs for belonging and recognition.

Centre For Idealism And The New Liberalism

The Economist has coined the term “hereditary meritocracy” to describe this self-perpetuating new class. Universities like the two in which I am privileged to work therefore bear a major responsibility to widen access, but they cannot achieve social mobility on their own. We also need high-quality state schooling for all, from the crucial early years up, better vocational education and, amid a digital revolution, lifelong learning.

Liberals And Liberalism

The reaction to the arrival in Europe of just a few million migrants from Africa and the wider Middle East has destabilised well-established European liberal democracies. Blaming myriad social evils on people coming from Latin America has been a central plank of Trumpism. It is a commonplace that we have seen a dramatic growth in inequality in many developed societies. In one leafy corner of London, Richmond upon Thames, a man of 65 can on average expect to have another 13.7 years of healthy life, which is more than twice as long as the mere 6.4 years that his counterpart can expect at the other end of the same city, in Newham.