Overview Of Comparative Politics comparative politics

Barrington Moore’s Social Origins of Democracy and Dictatorship embarked in a parallel examination of the political and economic evolution of great powers since the early modern period. Empirical study of political processes, structures and functions forms the core of Comparative Politics studies. Its aim is to build a scientific theory of politics capable of explaining all phenomena of politics. In Africa, Asia, and Latin America, comparative politics has focused, in particular, on the functioning of elections, thus contributing to identify criteria for evaluating the legitimacy of the electoral process. That notwithstanding, in many African countries, elections have not called into question the power of former liberation movements or ruling parties to dominate domestic politics. At the same time, the end of the Cold War and the prospect of the political reaggregation of the continent have accelerated the process of European integration; in the period from the Maastricht Treaty to the Lisbon Treaty , Europe has become the European Union .

Hence, rational choice theory derives its extraordinary academic and scientific success, especially among the community of U.S. political scientists, where it still sustains a strong hegemony of neoclassical economics within the social sciences. Aristotle compared and contrasted different types of government in his work “The Politics”. Comparative politics, also called comparative government, describes a method of scientific study in the political science field.

  • Starting in the 1990s, the field of public policy has also seen a dramatic expansion.
  • See The nature and sources of the British Constitution, The structure and role of Parliament and Devolution for key concepts and terminology relevant to UK constitutional arrangements.
  • The World Bank has been a leading institution in asserting that good governance is the basis for economic success.
  • At the beginning I was afraid of studying Latin America outside the region, but the MSc Comparative Politics has demonstrated that coming here was the right choice.
  • See The judiciary for key concepts and terminology relevant to the UK judiciary.
  • The fundamental transformations induced by the processes of globalization and Europeanization have ended up questioning the methodological and theoretical self-sufficiency of comparative politics.

In the magisterial five-volume Handbook of Political Sciencepublished thirty years ago by Greenstein and Polsby, the term accountabilityappears not once. The term representation appears sporadically and, outside of the volume on political theory, only a handful of times. Thirty years later, accountability has emerged as an organizing concept in comparative politics, with representation not far behind. In a vibrant and by now classic debate, scholars argued first that revolutions occur exclusively as a result of social and economic modernization .

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The course covers a range of topics in Comparative Politics drawing on different ideas, concepts, theories, and countries. The Comparative Study of Electoral Systems is a collaborative program of cross-national research among election studies conducted in over fifty states. Usecountry profilesto locate basic information, facts, and statistics about individual countries. I initially chose the LSE for academic purposes, because it is such a respected institution and also because of the programme of my degree.

The aim of the analysis is to establish the sequences and the variations of scale and time that characterize a given political process. One of the fundamental concepts of historical institutionalism is path dependence. The theory of path dependence argues that, in politics, decisions made at time t will tend to shape the decisions made at time t  1.

Subnational Comparative Analysis

“To identify causal effects we need assumptions and some of these assumptions are untestable.” His chapter will be must reading for comparatists as they assess the promise and limitations of observational versus experimental or quasi-experimental designs. Adam Przeworski offers a less optimistic perspective on observational research, large-n or otherwise. Observational studies, ones that do not ensure that the cases we compare are matched in all respects other than the “treatment,” cannot deal adequately with problems of endogeneity. “We need to study the causes of effects,” he writes, “as well as the effects of causes.” Some covariates are unobserved.

In democracies, how do citizens’ preferences get translated into demands for one public policy over another? If everyone in a society had the same preferences, the problem would not be a problem at all. And scholarship on preference aggregation must come to grips with social choice theory, which should lead us to doubt that citizens in any setting in which politics is multidimensional can (p. 555)evince any stable set of policy preferences. The dominant strains of research, some of which come to grips with the social choice challenge and others of which ignore it, include examinations of the congruence of various sorts . One kind of congruence study looks at the fit between constituents’ preferences and the issue positions of their representatives. Another looks at the fit between electoral outcomes and the allocation of elected offices, treating citizens’ policy preferences as though they were fully expressed by their votes.