This will be done by exploring relevant debates in this newly established discipline (e.g., Mignolo, Isin, Santos, etc.). We will then pursue a specialist insight in the non-West, looking at a variety of intellectual/philosophical canons. This part of the course highlights the practical relevance of non-Western texts and traditions for present-day issues and contemporary struggles across the globe, whilst addressing the emergence of new political imaginaries and conceptual tools that challenge conventional concepts in international law and politics. However, there are serious challenges in efforts to discriminate between these different hypotheses and to identify the specific mechanisms by which parochialism rises and falls in societies. Most studies have relied on observational cross-population designs, raising concerns about causality, identification of specific mechanisms, the direction of effects, and the time-scale of adaptation.
As expected from the theory, such ethnic cues can even trump racial differences in both young children (Kinzler et al., 2009; Corriveau et al., 2013) and sometimes in adults (Kurzban et al., 2001). This module combines a variety of approaches from history, sociology, economics, and political economy in the study of the political economy of the United States , and its unique position in the world economy. While tracing the historical development of the US in the world economy, the module examines major events and forces that have shaped the global political economy from the late 19th century to the present day. Particular attention will be paid to the long-term development trends of the US/world economy, the growth of institutions and markets, industrialization/deindustrialization, the internationalization of production and finance, the financialization of the US economy, and the impact of governmental economic policies. In this context, we will discuss the historical roots of US hegemony and its structural impact on the global economy.
Looking at key contemporary and ‘historical’ artworks and events, this module cuts across historical trajectories in order to examine both the representation of violence and the violence of representation. It investigates the various roles of art and visual culture in relation to the two World Wars, the Cold War, the cultural and ideological battles of the 1960s and 70s, the ‘armchair’ wars, the so-called ‘war on terror’ and many other conflicts in recent years. Using Agamben, Baudrillard, Virilio, Butler and others, it considers the impact of military surveillance techniques on culture, both in terms of art practices and more broadly, as experienced in everyday culture. It reflects on artists’ enduring fascination with war and terror and shows how art can be understood as a form of politics, knowledge and experience. Emerging experimental evidence suggests that people do indeed adjust some social motivations and behaviors (i.e., conformism) to specific cues of pathogen threats over and above generalized threats . However, cross-national and cross-state studies have shown mixed support for this hypothesis as an explanation for extant cross-population variation in parochialism (Currie and Mace, 2012; Fincher and Thornhill, 2012; Cashdan and Steele, 2013; Hruschka and Henrich, 2013; Hackman and Hruschka, 2013a; Hruschka et al., submitted).
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It can also be operationalized categorically in terms of common membership in a larger group, such as a religion, denomination, nationality, region, city, neighborhood, language, university, ethnicity, or race . Others see a media orientated government as a threat to the democratic process as it widens the scope for manipulation and dishonesty and weakens the role of representative institutions. It may also engender apathy and undermine interest in conventional forms of political activity such as voting and party membership. The impact of the primary agents of political socialisation has declined due to greater social and geographical mobility, and by the spread of individualist and consumerist values. This gives media more influence as they present information about issues and policies to the people.
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- Central to this process was the deployment of women and youth to cut across parochial politics and consolidate a broad base of support.
- Parochialism is manifest in a number of behaviors, preferences and motivations, which we classify here as avoidance, trust, favoritism, permission to harm, and ingroup bias.
- However, cross-national and cross-state studies have shown mixed support for this hypothesis as an explanation for extant cross-population variation in parochialism (Currie and Mace, 2012; Fincher and Thornhill, 2012; Cashdan and Steele, 2013; Hruschka and Henrich, 2013; Hackman and Hruschka, 2013a; Hruschka et al., submitted).
Politics which were a participant political culture, subject political culture and a parochial political culture. He has knowledge and feelings on the structure and roles of the political elites, and the policy proposals that are involved in the upward flow of policy making. He has knowledge and feelings on the downward flow of policy enforcement, the structures, individuals, and the decisions involved in these processes. He has knowledge of his rights, powers, obligations, and of strategies of access to influence.
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Therefore, in the case of Rakhine community, the concept of civic culture is not applicable but in the Bangali communities, there are no distinct political cultures, but rather a mixed one, which is termed as a civic culture. The causes of the parochial political culture of Rakhines are their dearth of education, backwardness, scarce of mobility as well as apathetic political communication. However, such reliably developing features of human cognition and motivation have to be understood in the light of two emerging lines of theory and evidence. First, growing up and ontogenetically adapting to very different environments means that different populations of humans have different brains and biologies, even when no genetic differences exist between populations (Henrich et al., 2010b,c).
Methodological Issues In Assessing Cross
At times, violence reminiscent of earlier times flares up , but after two centuries, most Iban have a very different way of defining insiders and outsiders and very different views about appropriate social behavior with other groups. Human populations differ reliably in the degree to which people favor family, friends, and community members over strangers and outsiders. In the last decade, researchers have begun to propose several economic and evolutionary hypotheses for these cross-population differences in parochialism. We also discuss the key methodological challenges in assessing these diverse economic and evolutionary theories for cross-population differences in parochialism. 4.4 Across the interventions, Commissioners, Panel and Taskforce Members have either led or encouraged a process of refreshing corporate values through focus groups, staff surveys, corporate induction and training.